IMPORTANCIA DEL SUELO

Suelo: cubierta superficial de la mayoría de la superficie continental de la Tierra. Es un agregado de minerales no consolidados y de partículas orgánicas producidas por la acción combinada del viento, el agua y los procesos de desintegración orgánica. Los suelos cambian mucho de un lugar a otro. La composición química y la estructura física del suelo en un lugar dado están determinadas por el tipo de material geológico del que se origina, por la cubierta vegetal, por la cantidad de tiempo en que ha actuado la meteorización, por la topografía y por los cambios artificiales resultantes de las actividades humanas. Las variaciones del suelo en la naturaleza son graduales, excepto las derivadas de desastres naturales. Sin embargo, el cultivo de la tierra priva al suelo de su cubierta vegetal y de mucha de su protección contra la erosión del agua y del viento, por lo que estos cambios pueden ser más rápidos. Los agricultores han tenido que desarrollar métodos para prevenir la alteración perjudicial del suelo debida al cultivo excesivo y para reconstruir suelos que ya han sido alterados con graves daños. El conocimiento básico de la textura del suelo es importante para los ingenieros que construyen edificios, carreteras y otras estructuras sobre y bajo la superficie terrestre. Sin embargo, los agricultores se interesan en detalle por todas sus propiedades, porque el conocimiento de los componentes minerales y orgánicos, de la aireación y capacidad de retención del agua, así como de muchos otros aspectos de la estructura de los suelos, es necesario para la producción de buenas cosechas. Los requerimientos de suelo de las distintas plantas varían mucho, y no se puede generalizar sobre el terreno ideal para el crecimiento de todas las plantas. Muchas plantas, como la caña de azúcar, requieren suelos húmedos que estarían insuficientemente drenados para el trigo. Las características apropiadas para obtener con éxito determinadas cosechas no sólo son inherentes al propio suelo; algunas de ellas pueden ser creadas por un adecuado acondicionamiento del suelo.
 
 
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